Charles presented the CIRCLE Working Paper 2015/27 entitled “The Innovation Union Scoreboard is Flawed: The case of Sweden – not the innovation leader of the EU – updated version”, at a seminar at the European Commission on September 15, 2015. A discussion transpired after the seminar on the use of indicators in assessing the performance of innovation systems. The relations between PPI (Public Procurement for Innovation) and PCP (Pre-Commercial Procurement) was also discussed. See past activities for various papers related to these three themes.